Category Archives: Literature

3 Tips to Get Back into the Habit of Reading

If I had a nickel for every time someone told me reading is one of their favorite hobbies, only for that person to admit they haven’t cracked open a book for months, I would have enough change to buy another novel that would sit unread on my shelf for months.

During times of media overload, where burning out from staring at screens are far from rare occurrences, a book can be a welcome break. But this points to a clear question: How do we rediscover the habit of reading?

In The Power of Habit, award-winning business reporter Charles Duhigg breaks down why good and bad habits have a tendency to linger. The habit loop, as Duhigg describes it, consists of 3 main steps. The first step of the habit loop involves encountering a trigger to cue an action. This leads into the second step, which is performing the specified action. Performing this action merits the reward, the last step in the habit loop.

Here’s an example of a habit loop:

  1. Cue: a Twitter notification pops up on your screen
  2. Action: You open Twitter and see who liked your Tweet
  3. Reward: A jolt of dopamine and sense of accomplishment encourages repetition

You can read Charles Duhigg’s The Power of Habit here.

Here are 3 tips to use the habit loop to confidently call yourself a bookworm:

  1. Set an alarm to signal it’s prime reading time

Contrary to popular belief, technology doesn’t have to be the enemy of reading. Setting a repeating alarm on your phone or other device is a simple, effective way to hold yourself accountable and stay dedicated to reading. The more you sit down to read after the alarm sounds, the stronger the cue becomes.

  1. Reward yourself when you reach a reading goal

If reading feels more like work instead of a reward in itself, then take a page out of my book and have a treat after hitting a milestone. When you finish a chapter, turn to a specific page, or read for a certain stretch of time, try enjoying a favorite snack, pouring a cup of tea, and getting cozy for the next reading stint. Remember, books pair well with self-care.

  1. Set a reading schedule

Just like its name implies, the habit loop repeats itself. To avoid losing steam and actually finish that book you’ve been meaning to dig into, set aside chunks of time throughout the week. Even the busiest readers can squeeze in 20-30 minutes of reading before starting the workday or turning in for the night. Making reading a consistent part of your routine is a sure-fire way to build a reading habit that sticks.


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Rachel Carson’s “Spring Without Voices” and the Rise of Environmental Literature

Throughout quarantine, many have turned to nature for a place of comfort and solace. We go to parks for socially distanced picnics, run on wood-chipped trails, and fill our bedrooms with pothos and ferns. When the pandemic is over and we are able to return to a semblance of normal, it is important to remember that nature was always there for us; it is finally time for us to be there for her. 

Environmental literature has been warning us about our decaying world for decades, and it is time to listen. Rachel Carson’s environmental science book Silent Spring was among the first and most important of its kind; Carson laments over the United States’s use of synthetic pesticides and how they have resulted in severe damage to our environment. From DDT to Parathion, Carson explains how insecticides have poisoned every aspect of nature, starting with spraying it onto our crops to killing millions of non-target organisms such as birds and fish. Describing how these insecticides wiped out multiple animal populations, Carson wrote, “It was a spring without voices. On the mornings that had once throbbed with the dawn chorus of robins, catbirds, doves, jays, wrens, and scores of other bird voices there was now no sound; only silence lay over the fields and woods and marsh” (2). 

Carson’s words are particularly relevant to our current climate; in the same way that spring was marked by the sounds of birds, summer was once defined by warm, late nights, beach gatherings, and barbecues. As we watch our first pandemic summer come to an end, we must think about how we have relied on nature and what we can do to prevent further destruction. 

We must not only carry on Rachel Carson’s legacy but be wary of the fact that her book still rings true sixty years later. Authors like Rebecca Solnit instill hope in those that are disillusioned by peoples’ lack of care for our environment. In “Letter to a Young Climate Activist on the First Day of the New Decade,” Solnit explains how we need to rise out of our state of disillusionment in order to make change. This begins by understanding the beauty and worthiness of nature. 

So, the next time you go to your local park or stare at the birds outside your window, remember, as Rebecca Solnit says, “We owe it to the whales, to every songbird in every tree, to frogs and trout and fireflies.”

Kelsey Allen

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Celebrating Toni Morrison On the Anniversary of Her Death (And Every Day)

August 5, 2020 was the one year anniversary of iconic novelist and essayist Toni Morrison’s death. For many people, Toni Morrison was their first introduction into Black literature; in fact, many parents have challenged her infamous novel Beloved, deeming it violent and sexually explicit. Despite attempts to ban her work, Toni Morrison’s writing and legacy lives on. 

The New York Times described Morrison as the “towering novelist of the Black experience,” The first African-American woman to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, Toni Morrison wrote novels, essays, and short stories that are essential to our understanding of American Literature. She accurately portrayed the Black experience while highlighting her writing with a dream-like essence; this can be seen in Beloved, with her portrayal of the trauma and haunting legacy slavery has left on the novel’s main character, Sethe. She describes this trauma through a word she coined herself: rememory. Morrison writes: “Some things you forget. Other things you never do…Places, places are still there. If a house burns down, it’s gone, but the place–the picture of it–stays, and not just in my rememory, but out there, in the world.”

Toni Morrison spent her lifetime educating the people around her, from teaching at Princeton University for seventeen years to releasing novels, short fiction, and children’s books up until her death. Some of these works include Home, God Help the Child, “Sweetness,” and Please, Louise. Young writers such as Britt Bennett and Colson Whitehead consider Morrison to be a strong influence on their best-selling and Pulitzer Prize-winning novels. Despite her tragic death, Morrison continues to have an impact on American literature, and she will continue to do so until the end of time. 

Kelsey Allen

Photo courtesy of The New Yorker

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The Relatability of Otessa Moshfegh’s My Year of Rest and Relaxation During Quarantine

Some people have decided to spend their quarantine productively: baking bread, learning to play a new instrument, or even adopting a new pet. Others, however, are both begrudgingly and enthusiastically embracing the beauty of laziness. Though it is easy to feel guilty for enjoying this newfound lethargy; Otessa Moshfegh’s novel, My Year of Rest and Relaxation, makes us feel a little less alone. 

Moshfegh’s novel opens with a young and beautiful woman living in New York City. She lives in a luxurious apartment and has a seemingly endless amount of money due to the passing of her parents. Despite her idyllic life, the narrator, who remains unnamed, is deeply depressed. She decides to sleep for an entire year, describing it as a kind of “reset.” She takes sleeping medications constantly and only leaves her apartment to get food or visit her psychiatrist. Confined to her apartment, she often narrates things that have no choice but to resonate with people’s current feelings during quarantine. The narrator writes, “I felt nothing. I could think of feelings, emotions, but I couldn’t bring them up in me. I couldn’t even locate where my emotions came from. My brain? It made no sense”(137) as she falls asleep to Whoopi Goldberg films. 

Like the narrator, many of us are looking for a reset on life. Though it seems impossible, the narrator ends up getting her fresh start. After a year of rest and relaxation (interspersed with moments of stress), the narrator steps outside and enjoys her surroundings. After finally being able to be free from the confines of her apartment, she writes, “there was majesty and grace in the pace of the swaying branches of the willows. There was kindness. Pain is not the only touchstone for growth, I said to myself”(288). 

You can purchase Otessa Moshfegh’s novel here

Kelsey Allen

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What’s in a Word?

Words have the power to heal as much as they have to cut someone down. For instance, derogatory words targeted at certain individuals or communities often leave a long-lasting negative impact and lower their self-esteem. Today, however, more people are becoming aware of the negative effects of such terms. Recently, Twitter and JP Morgan made an announcement in light of the Black Lives Matter movement where they stated that the words, “master,” “slave,” and “blacklist” in the code would be replaced by “leader,” “follower,” and “denylist” respectively.

Though a simple move, it reveals how naturally everyone had adopted these pejorative terms into everyday language without thinking twice about the side-effects they had on the Black community. This is a classic example of systemic racism––something we must all work towards abolishing completely. 

However, it is not only these terms that need to be modified. Let’s take a look at few other terms that are biased and regressive in nature and their replacements: 

  • Blind/deaf person: terms that placed disabilities first were replaced with person-first emphasis. Instead, “a person with blindness/deafness” is considered more appropriate. This indicates that people are more than just their descriptors.
  •  Hey guys: the word “guys” is restricted to men and gives the impression that women are excluded. In place of this, “hey y’all,” or “hey everyone” is deemed more inclusive.
  • Mankind: similar to the one above, “mankind” is highly gender exclusive. A better replacement is “humanity” or “humankind”.
  • That’s so gay/queer: used earlier to denote something as “uncool,” this phrase is a homophobic slur. The best option is to avoid such phrases that appear to insult the LGBTQ community. Interestingly, the negative connotation of the word “queer” was removed and then reclaimed by the LGBTQ community as an umbrella term to cover diverse experiences.
  • Chinky: an ethnic slur that targets Chinese/people of Chinese descent. Often used to describe the shape of their eyes, i.e. chinky eyes, it should be replaced with “slanted eyes.” Unfortunately, during COVID-19, there has been an increase in usage as people expressed xenophobic sentiments against Chinese/people of Chinese origin. 

This list continues, and it is imperative to recognize these words as pejorative and alienating. In order to respect and properly represent all communities and cultures, it is essential we adopt inclusive language. People should feel accepted without exception. Though it is possible to make mistakes, one must learn from them and avoid using those words in the future. Only then can this world be a much more accepting and loving place to live in. 

In the field of writing and publishing, being accurate is not enough. It is an editor’s responsibility to ensure that the language is appropriate, inclusive, unbiased and culturally sensitive. Moreover, most style guides also include inclusive language sections and resources that are updated regularly. By researching and educating themselves with these resources, editors can then uphold their responsibility and that of the author.

Amala Reddie

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The Lack of Invisible Disabilities and Illness in Literature (And What You Can Read to Educate Yourself)

As book sales continue to rise with people having to stay inside, we must think about those who have already experienced quarantine. Dr. Julian Maha writes, “Unfortunately, for those living with sensory needs and invisible disabilities, this social isolation is a normal way of life. For them, there is no return to the way things were.” Despite people with disabilities being the world’s largest minority, there is little to no literature that represents them, and when it does, it is often done in a harmful way. 

We, as readers, must do more to understand those with invisible disabilities. To do so, we must find novels that accurately portray those with such conditions. Brain on Fire: My Month of Madness by Susannah Cahalan discusses her experiences with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Cahalan goes into detail on being misdiagnosed multiple times and how she was confined to her hospital bed, barely able to walk. Because of her illness, Cahalan’s life was put on hold for months as she experienced multiple psychotic episodes. 

Another book that features an account of coping with an invisible disability is Sarah Manguso’s The Two Kinds of Decay. Manguso suffers an autoimmune disease that is so rare, it does not have a name. She underwent treatments in which her plasma was taken out of her body and replaced, along with steroid treatments. Her memoir serves as a portrait of what those with invisible disabilities and rare diseases go through, from forgetful nurses to complete alienation, all with an undertone of dark humor. More than anything, Manguso depicts the sheer loneliness that comes with having such a disease; she writes: “I tend to forget that my measurement of time is designed to distract me from what’s really happening.”

Now more than ever, these voices are essential to understanding our current world and how to survive in it. You can purchase Brain On Fire: My Month of Madness and The Two Kinds of Decay here

Kelsey Allen

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Comic Strips: A Recollection

Comic strips have always been an integral feature of American culture and first arrived in the United States during the late 19th century when newspapers were the best source of news and entertainment. As newspapers battled for readership, the most famous competition was the one between Joseph Pulitzer, owner of the New York World, and William Randolph Hearst, owner of New York Journal. In 1895, Pulitzer’s New York World launched a comic in color called “At the Circus in Hogan’s Alley” and introduced the Yellow Kid, designed by Richard Outcault. 

The comic featured a young boy dressed in a yellow nightshirt, and quite often, the boy’s thoughts and dialogues were printed on the nightshirt instead of a speech bubble. It went on to become the first comic strip of the United States. Such was the popularity of Yellow Kid that Hearst convinced Outcault to shift from World to the New York Journal. Despite this, Pulitzer retained the copyright of “Hogan’s Alley”, and soon both newspapers featured the same comic character, raising the stakes once more.

Another worthwhile comic strip is the Katzenjammer Kids, created by Rudolf Dirks and published in the New York Journal in 1897. Inspired by Max and Moritz, a children’s story by German author Wilhelm Busch; Katzenjammer Kids revolved around the lives of two German twins, Hans and Fritz, and their daily antics. Soon, other comic strips began arriving on the scene as other newspapers adopted them into their Sunday supplements.

Some of the most famous comic strip characters include “Phantom” (1936), “Peanuts” (1950), “Beetle Bailey” (1950), Dennis the Menace (1951), Garfield (1978), “Calvin and Hobbes” (1985), “Dilbert” (1989), and countless others. Each week, these beloved characters would appear in the newspaper and provided a sort of respite to readers from the usual news. Many readers also began cutting and pasting the strips together to make a complete book. One can say that comic books emerged from this comic strip collection. In fact, iconic comic book character Superman, conceptualized by Jerry Seigel and Joe Shuster, was a result of a failed comic strip that was later compiled into a 13-page story and debuted in Action Comics #1

Comic strips have come a long way since then. It paved the way for comic books which opened a gateway to a whole new universe. As it continued to gain trajectory, so did the merchandise and commercial value of the characters. Today, store shelves are lined with video games, bottles, backpacks, and even plush toys of characters such as Garfield, Snoopy the Dog, Calvin from “Calvin and Hobbes”, etc. It’s indeed staggering to imagine how a tiny panel with line drawings and thought bubbles expanded into full-length books, tv shows, and even landed on the silver screen!

Amala Reddie

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The Power of Palestinian Writer, Mohammed El-Kurd

Palestinian writer and poet Mohammed El-Kurd’s most recent piece, “My Grandmother, Icon of Palestinian Resilience,” beautifully details Palestine’s fight for power. In the article, El-Kurd writes of his Teta (grandmother), to whom he has dedicated numerous poems. He writes, “She is the axis to my actions, the orchestrator of my cadence. She cameoed my poetry and praxis.”

El-Kurd’s Teta, Rifqa el-Kurd, was a popular Palestinian activist whose home was invaded by Israeli settlers in 2009. The takeover of El-Kurd’s home was highly publicized in the media, leading to many activists visiting his family. Describing her as a “freedom fighter, an ambulance and a half,” Mohammed El-Kurd writes about his impressive and influential Teta while also giving readers a portrait of the Israeli takeover and Palestine’s resistance. Despite everything she went through—including suffering from dementia in the last year of her life—El-Kurd cites his Teta as his biggest influence, teaching him “how to launch my sentences like missiles.” 

El-Kurd’s piece about Teta’s recent death and activism is all too relevant right now; as Israel makes plans for annexation of Palestine, people are beginning to lose hope of ever seeing a solution. As El-Kurd notes, “We are yet to see the fruits of our seven-decades-old patience.”

El-Kurd is currently pursuing an MFA in Poetry at Brooklyn College. He has been featured in a variety of outlets, such as Al-Jazeera, The Guardian, and Huffington Post. You can also read his articles on his Medium page

Kelsey Allen

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Book Clubs: A Literary Phenomenon

Book clubs have existed since ancient times. According to an article by Medium, the first book club is said to have been the Socratic Circle where disciples sought to examine and understand the deeper meaning of a particular text by engaging in dialogue instead of memorizing it. In 1727, The Junto Club was formed by Benjamin Franklin where he met with fellow artisans and tradesmen to discuss politics, philosophy, and other subjects. 

Another club worth mentioning is The First Woman’s Club started by Hannah Adams, an American historian from Medfield, Massachusetts and the first American woman to earn a living from writing. Not only did it bring literary lovers together, but it also propelled a need for women’s rights. In March 2020, the club celebrated its 125th anniversary since its official establishment in 1894. 

Book clubs became increasingly popular throughout the years, especially when Oprah’s Book Club was first televised in 1996 and made them a cultural phenomenon. Books featured on Oprah Winfrey’s list would hit the New York Times Bestsellers’ List the very next day and would sell over a million copies. By the time the show ended in 2011, people had formed their own book clubs via Facebook groups and from there, emerged the idea of virtual book clubs.

In 2015, however, Instagram established itself as one of the most influential and popular platforms. Enticed by the aesthetic layout and incredible reach, authors and celebrities alike began to launch book clubs on the platform. Today, some of the book clubs on Instagram boast a following of nearly a million and counting. 

There is a certain kind of joy in visiting these virtual clubs on Instagram, especially the visually appealing feed with the book covers that compel you to read more about the book. The real pleasure, however, is in interacting and engaging with other followers from all across the world with just a screen and a comment box. While it certainly does not match the warmth and interpersonal communication experienced in an in-person book club, these virtual book clubs proved— more than ever—to be a real source of comfort during the pandemic.

Some of the most popular book clubs run by celebrities on Instagram are Reese’s Book Club (by actress Reese Witherspoon), Our Shared Shelf (by actress Emma Watson), Between Two Books (by the band Florence + Machine’s Florence Welsh and Irish teenager Leah Moloney), and Subway Book Review (created by Uli Beutter Cohen, it discusses books that people read on the commute).

Are there any book clubs that you follow? Let us know in the comments which ones and why you like them!

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Judging A Book By Its Cover

Although the saying, “never judge a book by its cover”, rings true for every reader, the book cover is an important marketing and sales tool for every publisher. Every minute detail of the book cover matters—from the color palette to the photographs to the typography. Book designers also face the tough decision of balancing their creative license and vision with the expectations of what the reader will buy. 

Looking back, some of the most iconic books also featured some of the most iconic covers, such as A Clockwork Orange, The Great Gatsby, Catch-22, and Catcher in the Rye. Even The Godfather cover designed by S. Neil Fujita is unforgettable with the puppeteer’s holding onto the strings attached to the words of “father”. The font too, is haunting with its powerful Gothic-looking typeface that aptly reflects the theme of power in the novel. 

Recently, the rise of Instagram—and more specifically—bookstagram, reinforced the importance of having an effective book cover design that would look good on not just our bookshelves but also on our social media feed. Book clubs on Instagram all began following the trend of uploading books with artistic elements like a strategically placed coffee mug and pens, or fairy lights, or posing with the book against an aesthetic background. 

In 2019, Vulture penned an article on the rise of book cover designs adapted for screens. The jackets, initially designed for bookshelves, must now also look great as a thumbnail or miniature and compel readers to click on them or even ‘like’ them. This led to trends like bold typography, hand-lettering, minimalistic backgrounds, botanical illustrations, and more so as to catch the reader’s eye as they scrolled past thousands of covers.

Now, as a result of the pandemic and social distancing, most people have resorted to purchasing or borrowing books online. Book covers have gained more importance than ever as readers first examine the cover on Amazon or Indiebound before diving into the synopsis. 

According to Literary Hub, New York Times, and Buzzfeed News, some of the best covers of 2019 include: 

Amala Reddie

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